Multi-Method Research: The Case for Formal Theory

Hein Goemans and I have collaborated on a new research note on formal theory and case studies. Here’s the abstract:

We argue that formal theory and historical case studies, in particular those that use process-tracing, are extremely well-suited companions in multi-method research. To bolster future research employing both case studies and formal theory, we suggest some best practices as well as some (common) pitfalls to avoid.

Since the research note is short by nature, I won’t spend too much extra space discussing it here. You’d be better off skimming or reading the note itself. In essence, though, we argue that formal theory and case studies are natural methodological allies. We also advocate for serious interpretation of a model’s cutpoint into the informal analysis. Manuscripts that combine formal theory with case studies too often spend considerable time developing the model only to ignore it when they begin discussing substance. They should be tied together.

Also, and something that I stress heavily in my book project on nuclear proliferation, we must be very careful in how we interpret those cutpoints. For example, a common fallacy takes the following form: the model says w occurs if x > y + z. The case study then goes to great lengths to prove that y was close to 0 or negative, therefore w should occur. This overlooks the values of x and z, however—even with y equal to 0, the inequality could still fail depending on the relationship between the other parameters. Put differently, and with certain notable exceptions detailed in the research note, we must think about the cutpoints holistically.

Again, you can read the full note here.

One response to “Multi-Method Research: The Case for Formal Theory

  1. great paper and clever approach. TY for acknowledging the operationalization and the reductionism that makes our models solvable, but move them away from reality (the observable world). Process Tracing. I will stop talking trash on it!

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